• How serious was the risk of bias?


  1. Did intervention and control groups start with the same prognosis?
  2. Were patients randomized?
  3. Was randomization concealed?
  4. Were patients in the study groups similar with respect to known prognostic factors?
  5. Was prognostic balance maintained as the study progressed?
  6. To what extent was the study blinded?
  7. Were the groups prognostically balanced at the study's completion?
  8. Was follow-up complete?
  9. Were patients analyzed in the groups to which they were randomized?
  10. Was the trial stopped early?


  • What are the results?


  1. How large was the treatment effect?
  2. How precise was the estimate of the treatment effect?


  • How can I apply the results to patient care?


  1. Were the study patients similar to my patient?
  2. Were all patient-important outcomes considered?
  3. Are the likely treatment benefits worth the potential harm and costs?