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Thread: Learn English by Phonics

  1. #11

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Vowel Combinations

    A vowel combination is a combination of two or three vowels, or of a vowel and at least one consonant, that is associated with one or more specific single sounds. For example, ea has the sounds /long e/ and /long a/; ayhas the sound /long a/, and igh has the sound /long i/. These vowel combinations are sometimes called digraphs, diphthongs, trigraphs, and triphthongs.
    Vowel combinations occur in three different forms in written English:

    1. Vowels often appear in clusters within a single syllable. This is the most common form.
    2. Vowels often appear in combination with a particular consonant or consonants which, together, represent a sound unit that is different from what you would expect if you didn't know the specific combination. For example, the o in old has the /long o/ sound, but if you didn't already know that already, you would think that the o in cold was short.
    3. Another common combination in English is one or two vowels followed by gh. The gh is usually silent. It is usually easier to decode the whole unit (igh, eigh) than to process the vowel and the gh separately.


    A Vowel Combinations


    ai/ay

    Together, ai or ay make a /long a/ sound.
    Example words: aim, rain, braid, paint, ray, say, stay, tail, twain, praise, stain, and main

    Other a vowel combinations


    • ay as in day, say, play, spray, and tray
    • au as in fault, gaunt, fraud, launch, pause, and sauce
    • aw as in saw, paw, claw, dawn, and crawl
    • augh as in caught, taught, daughter, naughty, haughty, and slaughter
    • wa /wô/ as in want, wash, swamp, squash, squat
    • wa /wă/ as in wax, wag, swam, and quack
    • all as in ball, tall, hall, and small
    • ald as in bald, scald, and alder
    • alk as in talk, walk, chalk, and stalk
    • alm as in alms, calm, palm, and psalm
    • alt as in halt, malt, and salt

    E Vowel Combinations

    ee and ea

    Together, ee or ea make a /long e/ sound. Sometimes, ea together makes a /short e/ sound or a /long a/ sound instead.
    Example words (ee): peek, see, queen, sleep, cheese, street, meet, and team
    Example words (ea /long e/): eat, sea, each, leaf, peach, mean, team, ease, and please
    Example words (ea /short e/): dead, head, spread, health, and meant
    Example words (ea /long a/): break, great, steak, and yea

    Other e vowel combinations


    • eu/ew as in sleuth, deuce, few, new, and shrewd
    • ei/ey/eigh /long a/ as in veil, beige, they, whey, eight, and weigh
    • ei/ey/eigh /long e/ as in seize, key, money, valley
    • ei/ey/eigh /long i/ as in heist, eye, geyser, height

    I Vowel Combinations


    • ie /long e/ as in brief, field, grieve, and piece
    • ie/ye /long i/ as in die, tie, dye, and rye
    • igh as in high, thigh, night, flight, and wright
    • ign as in sign, align, assign, and benign
    • ind as in bind, kind, mind, grind, and behind

    O Vowel Combinations


    • oo as in boo, food, smooth, and moose
    • oo as in book, look, good, and stood
    • oa /long o/ as in oat, loam, groan, loathe, and loaves
    • oe /long o/ as in doe, and hoe
    • oi/oy /y/ as in oil, coin, voice, boy, and ploy
    • old/olk/olt /long o/ as in gold, scold, folk, yolk, bolt, and volt
    • oll/ost /long o/ as in roll, knoll, scroll, ghost, most, and post
    • oll/ost /short o/ as in doll, loll, cost, lost, and frost
    • ou/ow as in out, round, bounce, how, down, and browse
    • ou/ow /long o/ as in soul, poultry, own, glow, snow, and owe
    • ou as in you, soup, group, and rouge

    U Vowel Combinations


    • ue /long u/ as in cue, due, hue, rue, sue, blue, clue, flue, glue, and true
    • ui /long u/ as in suit, fruit, cruise, juice, and sluice
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  2. #12

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Digraphs

    A digraph is a single sound, or phoneme, which is represented by two letters. A trigraph is a phoneme which consists of three letters. However, many people will simply use the term 'digraph' generally to describe both combinations. In digraphs, consonants join together to form a kind of consonant team, which makes a special sound. For instance, p and h combine to form ph, which makes the /f/ sound as in phonemic.
    When two or more consonants appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the consonant team is called a consonant blend. For instance, the word blend has two consonant blends: bl, for which you hear the sounds for both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the sounds for both n and d.

    Digraphs


    • ch, which makes the /ch/ sound as in watch, chick, chimpanzee, and champion
    • ck, which makes the /k/ sound as in chick
    • ff, which makes the /f/ sound as in cliff
    • gh, which makes the /g/ sound as in ghost and ghastly
    • gn, which makes the /n/ sound as in gnome and gnarled
    • kn, which makes the /n/ sound as in knife and knight
    • ll, which makes the /l/ sound as in wall
    • mb, which makes the /m/ sound as in lamb and thumb
    • ng, which makes the /ng/ sound as in fang, boomerang, and fingerprint
    • nk, which makes the /nk/ sound as in ink, sink and rink
    • ph, which makes the /f/ sound as in digraph, phone, and phonics
    • qu, which makes the /kw/ sound as in quick
    • sh, which makes the /sh/ sound as in shore, shipwreck, shark, and shield
    • ss, which makes the /s/ sound as in floss
    • th, which makes the /th/ sound as in athlete, toothbrush, bathtub, thin, and thunderstorm
    • th, which makes the /th/ sound as in this, there, and that
    • wh, which makes the /hw/ sound as in where and which
    • wr, which makes the /wr/ sound as in write
    • zz, which makes the /z/ sound as in fuzz and buzz

    Trigraphs


    • chr, which makes the /chr/ sound as in chrome and chromosome
    • dge, which makes the /g/ sound as in dodge and partridge
    • tch, which makes the /tch/ sound as in catch, match
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  3. #13

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Blends

    When two or more letters appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the combination is called a blend. For instance, the word blend has two consonant blends: bl, for which you hear the sounds for both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the sounds for both n and d.

    Two-Letter Blends


    • bl, which blends the /b/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /bl/ sound as in blend and blight
    • br, which blends the /b/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /br/ sound as in break and brown
    • cl, which blends the /c/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /cl/ sound as in cluster and class
    • cr, which blends the /c/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /cr/ sound as in crash and cross
    • dr, which blends the /d/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /dr/ sound as in drive and drab
    • fl, which blends the /f/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /fl/ sound as in flu and flake
    • fr, which blends the /f/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /fr/ sound as in freedom and frost
    • gl, which blends the /g/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /gl/ sound as in glad and glory
    • gr, which blends the /g/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /gr/ sound as in green and gravy
    • nd, which blends the /n/ and the /d/ sounds together to make the /nd/ sound as in blend and send
    • pl, which blends the /p/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /pl/ sound as in play and plow
    • pr, which blends the /p/ and the /r/ sounds together to make the /pr/ sound as in prime and prowl
    • sl, which blends the /s/ and the /l/ sounds together to make the /sl/ sound as in slogan and sloppy
    • sm, which blends the /s/ and the /m/ sounds together to make the /sm/ sound as in small and smart
    • sn, which blends the /s/ and the /n/ sounds together to make the /sn/ sound as in snail and snore
    • sp, which blends the /s/ and the /p/ sounds together to make the /sp/ sound as in special and spackel
    • st, which blends the /s/ and the /t/ sounds together to make the /st/ sound as in stop and start

    Three-Letter Blends


    • shr, which blends the /sh/ digraph and the /r/ sound together to make the /shr/ sound as in shroud
    • spl, which blends the /sp/ blend and the /l/ sound together to make the /spl/ sound as in splash and splendid
    • spr, which blends the /sp/ blend and the /r/ sound together to make the /spr/ sound as in spring and spray
    • squ, which blends the /s/ sound and the /sq/ digraph together to make the /squ/ sound as in squid and squelch
    • str, which blends the /st/ blend and the /r/ sound together to make the /str/ sound as in struggle and strap
    • thr, which blends the /th/ digraph and the /r/ sound together to make the /thr/ sound as in throw
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  4. #14

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    R-Controlled Vowels

    When a vowel is followed by an r, it makes a special sound. These are called r-controlled vowels, or r-colored vowels. These phonemes are as follows:

    • /ar/ sound as in car, guitar, Arthur
    • /âr/ sound as in care, bear, mare, scare, aquarium
    • /îr/ sound as in pier
    • /ir/ sound as in turnip, spider, certificate, and beaver
    • /or/ sound as in manor, observatory, author, brought, and orchard
    • /er/ sound as in butter, cutter, and mother

    Usually, /ar/ always sounds like the ar in car, and /or/ always sounds like the or in for. The ir, er, and ur, sound the same as in bird, her, and fur. These all make a /ər/ sound.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  5. #15

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Prefixes and Suffixes

    Most English words used today were not originally English. These words were adapted from other language, such as Latin and Greek. It can be helpful to know some of these roots of English vocabulary. It may be possible to guess the meaning of an unknown word when one knows the meaning of its root. Knowing prefixes and suffixes can also help.

    An English word can consist of three parts: the root, a prefix, and a suffix. The root is the part of the word that contains the basic meaning, or definition of the word. The prefix is a word element placed in front of the root, which changes the word's meaning or makes a new word. A suffix is a word element placed after the root, which changes the word's meaning as well as its function.

    When adding a suffix to a one-syllable word, if the root word ends in only one consonant and has only one vowel before it, and if the suffix begins with a vowel, then the consonant ending the root word will be doubled. For example, when adding -ing to can, we double the n to end up with canning. The rule for multisyllable words is the same, but applies only when the last syllable of the root is accented, like in beginner and concurring, but not in begins or forgetful.

    For words ending in silent e, when the suffix begins with a vowel, that silent e is usually dropped before adding the suffix. For example, in take and -ing, we drop the silent e off of take, then add the suffix, and end up with taking.

    When adding a suffix to a word ending in y, if there is a vowel before the y, just add the suffix. For example, obey + -ed becomes obeyed. If there is a consonant before the y, we will usually change the y to an i before adding any suffix (except -ing and -ish.) For example, angry + ly becomes angrily, and baby + -ign becomes babying.

    Common Prefixes

    Prefix Meaning Example
    pre- before They will show a sneak preview of the movie.
    un- not The cafeteria will be unavailable tomorrow morning.
    dis- not Mark disagreed with John's philosophy.
    re- again Are you going to renew your subscription?
    mis- not He has mismanaged the company.
    im- not With hard work and determination, nothing is impossible.
    bi- two Henry recently received his first pair of bifocals.
    de- not Many ecologists are concerned about the deforestation of our world's rain forests.

    Common Suffixes


    Suffixes Meaning Example
    -er doer I work as a computer programmer.
    -able able These glass bottles are recyclable.
    -ous full of Driving on the freeway can be dangerous.
    -ness state of being At night, the earth is covered in darkness.
    -ful full of The witness gave an honest and truthful testimony.
    -ly or -y like James whistled happily on his way home from school.
    -ment state of Mary sighed with contentment.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  6. #16

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Syllable Rules

    A syllable is a basic unit of written and spoken language. It is a unit consisting of uninterrupted sound that can be used to make up words. For example, the word hotel has two syllables: ho and tel. These will be marked here as in ho/tel.

    Counting Syllables


    To find the number of syllables in a word, use the following steps:

    1. Count the vowels in the word.
    2. Subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent e at the end of a word, or the second vowel when two vowels are together in a syllabl.e)
    3. Subtract one vowel from every diphthong (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.)
    4. The number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables.

    The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example:

    • The word came has 2 vowels, but the e is silent, leaving one vowel sound andone syllable.
    • The word outside has 4 vowels, but the e is silent and the ou is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowel sounds and therefore, two syllables.


    Six Kinds of Syllables


    There are six different kinds of syllables in English:

    1. Closed Syllables: A closed syllable has one and only one vowel, and it ends in a consonant. Examples include in, ask, truck, sock, stretch, twelfth, and on.
    2. Open Syllables: An open syllable has one and only one vowel, and that vowel occurs at the end of the syllable. Examples include no, she, I, a, and spry.
    3. Silent-E Syllables: A silent-e syllable ends in an e, has one and only one consonant before that e, and has one and only one vowel before that consonant. Examples include ate, ice, tune, slope, strobe, and these.
    4. Vowel Combination Syllables: A vowel combination syllable has a cluster of two or three vowels or a vowel-consonant unit with a sound or sounds particular to that unit. Examples include rain, day, see, veil, pie, piece, noise, toy, cue, and true.
    5. Vowel-R Syllables: A vowel-r syllable is one which includes one and only one vowel followed by an r, or one vowel followed by an r which is followed by a silent e, or a vowel combination followed by an r. Examples include car, or, care, ire, air, and deer.
    6. Consonant-L-E Syllables: In these syllables, a consonant is followed by le. The vowel sound in these syllables is the schwa sound that occurs before the l. Examples include -ble, -cle, -dle, -fle, and -gle.

    Dividing Words Into Syllables

    There are four ways to split up a word into its syllables:

    1. Divide between two middle consonants.


    Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example:
    hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

    2. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.


    When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
    "o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as in "cab/in".

    3. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable.


    When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the consonant before the "-le". For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "thi/stle". The only exception to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le".

    4. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.


    Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the "-ing".
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  7. #17

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Accent Rules

    When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. The unstressed syllable usually takes the schwa sound.
    It may seem that the placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

    1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.
    2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box'/es, un/tie'.
    3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-, po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.
    4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.
    5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is usually accented. Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.
    6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.
    7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  8. #18

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Spelling With C and G

    The letter c makes two sounds—the /k/ sound and the /s/ sound. The sound of c is controlled by the letter following it. When c is followed by a consonant (except h), it makes the /k/ sound. When followed by the vowels a, o, or u, it also makes the /k/ sound. However, when followed by the vowels e, i, or y, it makes the /s/ sound. When c makes the /k/ sound, that is called its hard sound, and when it makes the /s/ sound, that is called its soft sound.


    The letter g is similar, sometimes making its hard sound /g/, and other times making its soft sound /j/. However, it doesn't follow the rule as often as c. Some notable exceptions include give, get, gear, girl, and gill.

    Spelling With C


    When c is followed by e, i or y, it says /s/ as in cent. Otherwise, it says /k/ as in cat.

    • Examples of the /s/ sound: centre, ceiling, circle, and cycle.
    • Examples of the /k/ sound: cottage, cave, cream, curious, and clever.


    Spelling With G


    When g is followed by i, e or y, it says /j/ as in gym. Otherwise, it says /g/ as in gold.

    • Examples of the /j/ sound: gentle, giant, and gymnastic.
    • Examples of the /g/ sound: gallon, gold, guide, glass, and grow.
    • Exceptions: get, got, begin, girl, give, gear, geese, gift, girth, geyser, and giddy.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

  9. #19

    Default Re: Learn English by Phonics

    Y as a Consonant and a Vowel

    Sometimes, the letter y is a consonant, and other times it is a vowel. The rule for telling the two apart is simple: The letter y is a consonant when it is the first letter of a syllable that has more than one letter. If y is anywhere else in the syllable, it is a vowel.

    Examples of Y as a Consonant


    • yes
    • yam
    • yell
    • yellow
    • yogurt

    Examples of Y as a Vowel


    • gym
    • my
    • cycle
    • baby
    • hairy
    • sky
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

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