Acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base.


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The key to understanding the use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for calculating percent ionization is to realize that this equation relates a constant, pKa, to the ratio of the acidic form of a functional group to its conjugate base form (and conversely, the conjugate acid form to its base).

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When dealing with a basic functional group, one must recognize the conjugate acid represents the ion- ized form of the functional group.

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