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Thread: Cost and Consequence and Perspectives

  1. #1

    Cool Cost and Consequence and Perspectives

    Patient Perspective

    Costs: Costs from the perspective of patients are essentially what patients pay for a product or service - that is, the portion not covered by insurance. For example, various costs form a patient's perspective might include insurance copayments and out-of-pocket drug costs, as well as indirect costs, such as lost wages.

    Consequences: From a patient's perspective, are the clinical effects, both positive and negative, of a program or treatment alternative.

    When assessing the impact of drug therapy on quality of life or if a patient will pay out-of-pocket expenses for a healthcare service, patient perspective should be considered.

    Provider Perspective

    Costs: Costs from the provider's perspective are the actual expense of providing a product of service, regardless of what the provider charges. Providers can be hospitals, managed-care organizations, or private-practice physicians. From this perspective, direct costs such as drugs, hospitalization, laboratory tests, supplies, and salaries of healthcare professionals can be identified, measured, and compared. However, indirect costs can be of less important to the provider.

    When making formulary management or drug-use policy decisions, the viewpoint of the healthcare organization should dominate.

    Payer Perspective

    Payer include insurance companies, employers, or the government.

    Costs: The charges for healthcare products and services allowed or reimbursed by the payer. The primary cost for a payer is of a direct nature. However, indirect costs, such as lost workdays (absenteeism), being at work but not feeling well and therefore having lower productivity (presenteeism), also can contribute to the total cost of healthcare to the payer.

    When insurance companies and employers are contracting with MCOs or selecting healthcare benefits for their employees, then the payer's perspective should be employed.

    Societal Perspective

    The perspective of society is the broadest of all perspectives because it is the only one that considers the benefit to society as a whole.

    Costs: Theoretically, all direct and indirect costs are included in an economic evaluation performed from a societal perspective. Costs from this perspective include patient morbidity and mortality and the overall costs of giving and receiving medical care.

    In countries with nationalized medicine, society is the predominant perspective.
    Last edited by CheneyHsiung; Mon 7th September '15 at 12:26pm.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Hematology

  2. #2

    Default Cost

    Once a perspective is chosen, the costs and consequences associated with a given product or service can be identified and measured using pharmacoeconomic methods. A comparison of two or more treatment alternatives should extend beyond a simple comparison of drug acquisition costs.

    Cost and Consequence and Perspectives-screen-shot-2015-09-07-at-7-04-24-pm-png
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Hematology

  3. #3

    Default Consequence

    Similar to costs, the outcomes or consequences of a disease and its treatment are an equally important component of pharmacoeconomic analyses. The manner in which consequences are quantified is a key distinction among pharmacoeconomic methods because the assessment of costs is relatively standard. Like costs, the consequences (or outcomes) of medical care also can be categorized.

    1.Economic outcomes are the direct, indirect, and intangible costs compared with the consequences of medical treatment alternatives.

    2.Clinical outcomes are the medical events that occur as a result of disease or treatment (e.g., safety and efficacy end points).


    3. Humanistic outcomes are the consequences of disease or treatment on patient functional status or quality of life along several dimensions (e.g., physical function, social function, general health and well-being, and life satisfaction).
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Hematology

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