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Thread: Basic Conceptions in Inflammation

  1. #1
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    Default Basic Conceptions in Inflammation

    Inflammation is a response of vascularized tissue to infections and damaged tissues that brings cells and molecules of host defense from the circulation to the sites where they are needed, in order to eliminate the offending agents. Inflammation serves to rid the host of both the initial cause of cell injury (e.g., microbes, toxins) and the consequences of such injury (e.g., necrotic cells and tissues). Without inflammation, infections would go unchecked, wounds would never heal, and injured tissues might remain permanent festering sores.

    The typically inflammatory reaction develops through a series of sequential steps, including:

    1.The offending agent, which is located in extravascular tissues, is recognized by host cells and molecules;
    2.Leukocytes and plasma proteins are recruited from the circulation to the site where the offending agent is located;
    3.The leukocytes and proteins are activated and work together to destroy and eliminate the offending substance;
    4.The reaction is controlled and terminated;
    5.The damaged tissue is repaired.

    In brief, the steps (the five Rs) are 1.recognition of the injurious agent; 2.recruitment of leukocytes; 3.removal of the agent; 4.regulation (control) of the response; and 5.resolution (repair).
    Last edited by admin; Thu 11th September '14 at 6:39pm.
    B.S. Pharm, West China School of Pharmacy, Class of 2007, Health System Pharmacist, RPh. Hematology, Infectious Disease. Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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  2. #2

    Default The Causes of Inflammation

    Inflammatory reactions may be triggered by a variety of stimuli:

    1. Infections

    Infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic and the toxins released by microbes are among the most common and medically important causes of inflammation. Different infectious pathogens elicit varied inflammatory responses, from mild acute inflammation that causes little or no lasting damage and successfully eradicates the infection, to severe systemic reactions that can be fatal, to prolonged chronic reactions that cause extensive tissue injury.

    2. Tissue Necrosis

    Tissue necrosis elicits inflammation regardless of the cause of cell death, which may include ischemia, trauma, and physical and chemical injury. And some molecules released from necrotic cells are known to trigger inflammation.

    3. Foreign Bodies

    Foreign bodies (e.g., splinters, dirt, sutures) may elicit inflammation by themselves or because they cause traumatic tissue injury or carry microbes. Even some endogenous substances can be considered potentially harmful if large amounts are deposited in tissues (urate crystals in gout, cholesterol crystals in atherosclerosis, and lipids in unsubstantiated metabolic syndrome).

    4. Immune Reactions

    Immune reactions (also called hypersensitivity) are reactions in which the normally protective immune system damages the individual's own tissues. The injurious immune responses may be directed against self antigens, causing autoimmune diseases, or may be inappropriate reactions against environmental substances, as in allergies, or against microbes.
    Last edited by Janis.Y.Chen; Thu 11th September '14 at 5:43pm.
    Clinical Pharmacy Specialist - Infectious Diseases

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