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Thread: [Psychology][Self Train] Emotional Intelligence

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    PharmD Year 1 TomHsiung's Avatar
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    Default [Psychology][Self Train] Emotional Intelligence

    Is being in tune with yourself and others also a sign of intelligence, distinct from academic intelligence? Some researchers say Yes. They define social intelligence as the know-how involved in social situations and managing yourself successfully. People with high social intelligence can read social situations the way a skilled soccer player reads the defense or a meteorologist reads the weather. The concept was first proposed in 1920 by psychologist Edward Thorndike, who noted, "The best mechanic in a factory may fail as a foreman for lack of social intelligence".

    One line of research has explored a specific aspect of social intelligence called emotional intelligence, consisting of four abilities:
    • Perceiving emotions (recognizing them in faces, music, and stories)
    • Understanding emotions (predicting them and how they may change and blend)
    • Managing emotions (knowing how to express them in varied situations)
    • Using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking

    Emotionally intelligent people are both socially aware and self-aware. Those who score high on managing emotions enjoy higher-quality interactions with friends. They avoid being hijacked by overwhelming depression, anxiety, or anger. They can read others' emotional cues and know what to say to soothe a grieving friend, encourage a workmate, and manage a conflict.

    These emotional intelligence high scorers also perform modestly better on the job. On and off the job, they can delay gratification in pursuit of long-range rewards, rather than being overtaken by immediate impulses. Simply said, they are emotionally smart. Thus, they often succeed in career, marriage, and parenting situations where academically smarter (but emotionally less intelligent) people might fail.

    Some scholars, however, are concerned that emotional intelligence stretches the intelligence concept too far. Howard Gardner includes interpersonal and interpersonal intelligences as two of his eight forms of multiple intelligences. But let us also, he acknowledges, respect emotional sensitivity, creativity, and motivation as important but different. Stretch intelligence to include everything we prize and the word will lose its meaning.
    Last edited by TomHsiung; Sun 20th November '16 at 1:59pm.
    B.S. Pharm, West China School of Pharmacy, Class of 2007, Health System Pharmacist, RPh. Hematology, Infectious Disease.

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    PharmD Year 1 TomHsiung's Avatar
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    Default Introduction to Emotion

    Emotions are a mix of:
    • bodily arousal (heart pounding)
    • expressive behaviors (quickened pace)
    • conscious experience, including thoughts ("Is this a kidnapping?") and feelings (panic, fear, joy)


    Historical Emotion Theories
    James-Lange Theory: Arousal Comes Before Emotion
    Common sense tells most of us that we cry because we are sad, lash out because we are angry, tremble because we are afraid. First comes conscious awareness, then the feeling. But to pioneering psychologist William James, this commonsense view of emotion had things backward. Rather, "We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble". James' idea was also proposed by Danish physiologist Carl Lange, and so is called the James-Lange theory. James and Lange would have guessed that I notice may racing heart and then, shaking with fright, felt the whoosh of emotion - that my feeling of fear followed my body's response.

    Cannon-Bard Theory: Arousal and Emotion Occur Simultaneously
    Physiologist Walter Cannon disagreed with James and Lange. Does a racing heart signal fear or anger or love? The body's responses - heart rate, perspiration, and body temperature - are too similar, and they change too slowly, to cause the different emotions, said Cannon. He, and later another physiologist, Philip Bard, concluded that our bodily responses and experienced emotions occur separately but simultaneously. So, according to the Cannon-Bard theory, my heart began pounding as I experienced fear. The emotion-triggering stimulus traveled to my sympathetic nervous system, causing my body's arousal. At the same time, it traveled to my brain's cortex, causing my awareness of my emotion. My pounding heart did not cause my feeling of fear, nor did my feeling cause my pounding heart.

    If our bodily responses and emotional experiences occur simultaneously and one does not affect the other, as Cannon and Bard believed, then people who suffer spinal cord injuries should not notice a difference in their experience of emotion after the injury. But there are differences, according to one study of 25 World War II soldiers. Those with lower-spine injuries, who had lost sensation only in their legs, reported little change in their emotions' intensity. Those who with high spinal cord injury, who could feeling nothing below the neck, did report changes. Some reactions were much less intense than before the injuries. Anger, one high spinal cord-injured man confessed, "just doesn't have the heat to it that it used to. It's a mental kind of anger." Other emotions, those expressed mostly in body areas above neck, were felt more intensely. These men reported increases in weeping, lumps in the throat, and getting choked up when saying good-bye, worshiping, or watching a touching movie. Our body responses seemingly feed our experienced emotions.

    But most researchers now agree that our emotions also involve cognition. Whether we fear the man behind us on the dark street depends entirely on whether we interpret his actions as threatening or friendly.
    B.S. Pharm, West China School of Pharmacy, Class of 2007, Health System Pharmacist, RPh. Hematology, Infectious Disease.

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    PharmD Year 1 TomHsiung's Avatar
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    Default Thinking/Cognition

    What is cognition, and what are the functions of concepts?
    Psychologists who study cognition focus on the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information. One of these activities is forming concepts - mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. The concept chair includes many items - a baby's high chair, a reclining chair, a dentist's chair - all for sitting. Concepts simplify our thinking. Imagine life without them. We would need a different name for every person, event, object, and idea. We could not ask a child to "throw the ball" because there would be no concept of throw or ball. Instead of saying, "They were angry," we would have to describe expressions, intensities, and words. Concepts such as ball and anger give us much information with little cognitive effort.

    We often form our concepts by developing prototypes - a mental image or best example of a cateogory.

    Once we place an item in a category, our memory of it later shifts toward the category prototype.

    Summary

    • Cognition: all the metal activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
    • Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
    • Algorithm: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics.
    • Heuristic: a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
    • Insight: a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
    • Confirmation bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
    Last edited by TomHsiung; Sun 20th November '16 at 3:53pm.
    B.S. Pharm, West China School of Pharmacy, Class of 2007, Health System Pharmacist, RPh. Hematology, Infectious Disease.

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